To Be a Smooth Writer, Use Transitional Words and Phrases

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Different ways to acknowledge sources in your work

All stylebooks suggest the same information regarding citing and acknowledging sources; however, the order of that information varies based on how different academic fields prioritize different elements of a source of works cited or list of references. 

The Modern Language Association Handbook (MLA) is designed for teachers of English and other languages. MLA includes (in the text) the author’s name and the page where the original information lives.

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) style is designed to promote information that the social scientist is most interested in— the year when the source information was documented.

The University of Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) is used in humanities and historical research and favors using footnotes, instead of in-text citation. Footnotes give publication details at the bottom of the page, without clouding the information being presented, analyzed, and compared. Using footnotes instead of inserting parenthetical information allows the reader to focus on the evidence without being distracted by the publication information about that evidence. Include only the footnote number in the text, and put the author and page number at the bottom of the page.

Associated Press (AP) style is designed for journalistic writing, including newspapers and magazines. AP style directs writers to cite resources in the text, in the same way they cite a quotation from a source in the story (i.e., “A is the first letter,” said Joan Murry, the Maplewood County librarian.).

These source styles are the three main ones used in citing information used in all types of documents. Most other custom style guides are patterned from one of these, along with specific additions and required usage connected to the particular audience.

So, as you gather information for your writing, decide on the genre, audience, and purpose based on one of these styles. Create your own style sheet modified with any special usage rules as necessary to appeal to your audience; and refer to your style sheet as you write. This makes things easier for both you and your editor to put your best word forward and increase the integrity of your hard work.

Speaking of integrity, it is crucial to acknowledge the work of others who have done the research and shared their life experiences that helped you produce your own work.

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Using quotation marks in your document? Keep commas and periods inside

In American English, place commas and periods inside the closing quotation mark (unlike British English).

This practice came from a time when type was set by hand. The delicate period and comma outside of quotation marks at the end of a sentence tended to get knocked out of place, bruised, or broken; so, printers ended up placed them inside the quotation marks to solve this problem. The practice has not changed, even though broken type is no longer an issue in print.

So, take note: 
     Period—The students gathered in the field to “observe the lay of the land.” 
     Comma—“The baby fell asleep,” the nurse whispered.

Set quotation marks before semicolons and colons 
       At first, Madge said she was “afraid to jump”;  by the end of the class she                    had changed her mind. 
      “Inertia is defined as follows”: … Madge wrote, before she heard screams                     coming from the other room.

Set quotation marks before exclamation points and question marks that are not part of the quotation. 
     “Stop complaining!” she shouted.
     “Is he going to complain again?” Madge whispered.

Use single quotation marks for a quote within a quote (the opposite is done in British English). 
     “Stop complaining” said Madge. “Remember that ‘the early bird catches the         
    worm’ and be glad you have to wake up at dawn.”

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Which Verb is it? Bear or Bare

The verb to bear is sometimes confused with to bare. Here is a quick tip on the difference.

The verb bear has a variety of meanings: to holdto supportto exhibitto carry oneself in a specific wayto endureto give birth to, bear downbear out, and bear up,bear in mindbring to bear and bear fruit. Its past tense is bore (e.g., it bore fruit).

Bear is also the correct verb in the common phrases grin and bear it and bear the brunt of

The verb bare always means to uncover or expose.

EXAMPLE: Blowing and drifting snow and cold temperatures continued to make it difficult for any of the snow removers to reach bare pavement [Champaign/Urbana News-Gazette]

Test Your Knowledge: Choose the Right Word

The chair in the kitchen broke when Jon sat on it; his weight was too much to ____.

Mary looked for her ring everywhere, she even dug through the snow on the driveway until she hit ____   pavement.

Word of the Month

Nescience (n.): Lack of knowledge. Ignorance.

She was surprised at his nescience about baking, although he was a great chef.

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Are you still typing two spaces after the period in your documents?

Stop it. Your computer is not a typewriter! I recently received a rash of queries about whether it is best practice to put two spaces after a period in a letter or other document. Your word processing software is equipped with fonts that type designers created to make words and sentences followed by one space only. The font has dimension and each letter is a different size from the other, unlike type on a Corona typewriter (which has fonts that are all the same size).

However, the current edition of theManual of Style of the American Psychological Association  dictates the use of two spaces after a period (a change from previous issues). This manual is one of my go-to references for editing; but, there is no conclusive evidence to support that practice.

What is true is that two spaces were helpful in separating sentences when created on a typewriter. Letters were mono font, which means that each letter had the same spacing, whether it was the letter i or m. Today, type designers now use technology to create proportional fonts for word processing software, so there is no longer a need to use two spaces to separate sentences.

To each his own, but as a type lover, I respect the beauty and integrity of the type designer’s work. Also, if you submit your document for publishing, one of your spaces will be deleted before the work is published anyway (even if you used the nostalgic typewriter courier font); so, why waste your time with two spaces. And, two spaces may indicate you have a “typewriter mentality,” and you haven’t “gotten the memo” on the new order of publishing. I will leave you with the thought that we live in a democracy, so, as editors, we embrace the use of varying styles in our work.

The key is—BE CONSISTENT in whatever you choose to use. As for me (and my house), we will use one space at all times.

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“I’m filing, but I can’t find anything!” 8 Rules to make your filing consistent and efficient

Transpose names of individuals when filing: last name, first noun_Folder_679968name/initial, middle name/initial.
So, Donna Mae Marks should be filed under Marks, Donna Mae
Mary J. Blige should be filed under Blige, Mary J.Michael B. Jordan should be filed under Jordan, Michael B.


Last names that include a prefix such as D’. De, De la, Den, Des, Du, El, Fitz, L’, La, Las, Le, Lo, Los M’, Mac’ Mc, O’, Saint, St., Ste., Te, Ten, Van, Van der, Von, etc. are filed as one word in alpha order.
So, D’ Genoa should be filed under Dgenoa
Da Silva under Dasilva
Van der Poll under Vanderpoll
McKnight under Macknight
Marie under Stmarie


If you can’t tell whether you have a first or a last name, file it as written, then file create a cross-reference to the transposed name.

So, Lee Atlas should be filed under Lee Atlas and again under Atlas Lee
Louie Paul under Louie Paul and again under Paul Louie


Hyphenated and compound names should be treated as one unit.

So, Camille Rogers-Hinds should be filed under RogersHinds, Camille
Luke Sainte Marie under Saintmarie, Luke


When someone’s title is added to the end of the name.

So, Father Geoffrey Thomas gets filed under Thomas, Geoffrey Father
Mayor Jane Mercer under Mercer, Jane Mayor
John Delany, II under Delaney, John II
Lori M. Janeway under Janeway, Lori M
John H. Kendrick, CPA under Kendrick John H. CPA


A business name is filed as written.

So, Home Depot gets filed under Home Depot
University of Baltimore under University of Baltimore
Giant Foods under Giant Foods
Apple, Inc. under Apple, Inc.
Coca-Cola Co. under Coca-Cola Co.
Pre-Med Program under Pre-Med Program


File names that start with number led under the spelling of the number.

So, 700 Club should be filed under Seven Hundred Club
1000 Apartments of Southside under one Thousand Apartments of Southside


With names with an article in front of them, ignore the article.

So, The Big Ice Company should be filed under Big Ice Company, The
The Daniels Group under Daniels Group, The
The LED Studio under LED Studio, The

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Take the hesitation out of using a comma

“I hate commas; it seems so random the way they are used.”
“It is so hard to know when to use the comma.”
These are common complaints that I’ve heard about this most ubiquitous of punctuation marks.

The comma simply indicates a pause in speech, so if you take a breath in your mind as you read something, put a comma there. In fact, it all started with the oral tradition, when information was passed down by word of mouth. Later, a way was found to immortalize the spoken word. Scribes used symbols to create written words, but with no spaces or definition between each word. Punctuation evolved on the heels of the written word, as a way to sort out the confusion of trying to read something aloud in a way that is easy for the listener to understand and the reader to interpret.

Here are the Basic Ways to Use the Comma

  1. Use it to bring two thoughts or sentences together.
    I love ice cream, there is always some in my fridge.
  2. Use it to break up a sentence that runs on and on. It is best to break up that sentence into separate clauses and use a comma after each clause.
    So, instead of this:
    The results of the investigation were inconclusive more time was needed to analyze the evidence and the victim died before he could be questioned.
    Write this:
    The results of the investigation were inconclusive, more time was needed to analyze the evidence, and the victim died before he could be questioned.
  3. Use it to define a list.
    Either this:
    The colors of the flag are red, blue, and white. (serial comma, with comma before and—my personal favorite, since it prevents ambiguity)
    or this:
    The colors of the flag are red, blue and white. (Associated Press style, with no comma before and)

Once you get into this rhythm of using the comma, you can hardly go wrong.

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